Glaucoma is optic nerve damage due to raised eye pressure. Like diabetes, it is symptomatic only in the advanced stages in the open angle type. In the closed angle type, symptoms may be present. Compared to the western population the prevalence of the latter variety is more.Untreated Glaucoma can lead to permanent loss of vision.

Hence routine eye check up to measure the eye pressure, examine the fundus or optic nerve head is necessary

  • Above the age of 40 yrs
  • Those with family history of glaucoma
  • Loss of vision
  • Severe headaches associated with eye pain, red eyes
  • Headaches after sitting in the dark
  • Visualization of coloured haloes or lights

Gonioscopy helps in assessing the angle of the front chamber of the eye that drains the eye fluid.

Autoperimetry is done to know if there is visual field damage as well as to know the extent of the field defect present, if any. It’s progress can be assessed by serial autoperimetry.

It can be treated

  • medically –excellent medicines are available nowadays
  • surgically – trabeculectomy or by
  • YAG laser

based on the type and degree.


Injuries to the eye could be sight threatening. Early treatment can save vision.

Patients with direct eye injuries or RTA with injury on the head should report to or be examined by the ophthalmologist at the earliest even if the vision is fine. Never rub eyes or instill native medication.

In globe injury – First aid should include use of antibiotic drops only. The eye should be patched without any pressure till the patient reaches the ophthalmologist.

Chemical injuries: This is an ophthalmic emergency.

First aid should be rendered without loss of a single second. Wash the eyes with available water and only then rush to the nearest ophthalmologist.